Journal of Ancient Topography

n. III 1993


JAT IIl (1993)


R. Ross HOLLOWAY, Ustica: The Development of a Middle Bronze Age Town in the Tyrrhenian Basin. In the context of the rising evidence of influence from the eastern Mediterranean and the Aegean on the Bronze Age cultures of Italy and Sicily, this study examines the results of recent excavations on the island of Ustica. Despite the foreign influences apparent in the settlement of the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1400-1200 B.C.) at the site of I Faraglioni, review of  the evidence of these excavations suggests moving toward a concept of  filtered rather than direct stimuli in seeking to understand the development of the Central Mediterranean in its relations with eastern areas at  this time.

C. IAIA - A. MANDOLESI, Topography of 8th. century B.C. settlement in Southern Etruria.

The initial purpose of this article is to present a systematic topographica1 inventory of the Early Iron Age and 8th. century B.C. (transition  to Orientalizing  phase) archaeologica1 sites in southern Etruria. Available data, especially those concerning settlements, are often  unsatisfactory, being  the result of chance finds and  outdated  research methods. Nevertheless, an interesting, complex demographic picture does emerge, and a number of hypotheses on 8th. century settlement patterns can be advanced. There are three main types of settlement pattern in this periodo The first consists of large, "protourban" populated  zones occupying more tban 100 hectares,  mostly along the coast, as precursors of the major Etruscan  towns. The second  consists of  small and medium sized high ground sites, with an inhabited area not usually in excess of 10 hectares, situated in strategic positions along the main rivers. The third consists of settlements on coastal dunes and in low lying areas, for the exploitation of marine and agricultural resources. The authors believe that the territory was organized on hierarchical basis. with smaller sites as satellites of the "proto-urban" centres. This system had been in existence in embryo since the 9th. century B.C., thug it took on a more definitive form during the 8th. century.

D. H. CONWELL, Topography and Toponyms between Athem and Piraeus.

For centuries scholars have studied intensively the major population centres at Achens and her port Piraeus. The area between these two settlements, however. has received little attention. In fact, we have both archaeological and written testimony relevant to this portion of the Athenian Plain. Analysis of the evidence provided by ancient remains and place-names makes it possible to understand the nature and extent of human activity in the region. The present study focuses on the ancient nomenclature of the region between Athens and Piraeus. It summarizes the evidence for the character and location of the places recorded by written sources, and attempts to associate the place-names wich specific parts of the landscape.

G. ROSADA. Patavium: Notes on Landscape Archaeology and Urban Topography.

A new hydrographical examination of Patavium has reopened the question of the town's layout and topographical development. The old hypothesis of the Roman insula patavina enclosed within the wide loop of che River Meduacus now deserves further consideration on the basis of the following factors: documentary evidence of the presence in the southern part of the town of a flumixellum (a probable diversion of water from the Meduacus/Brenta to the town branch of the river), which in the 11th. century, served as a boundary for the land owned by the Monastery of S. Giustina; still identifiable traces of this channelling (parallel streets following its ancient route); archaeological data arguably connected with the canal banks (amphoras packed together) and the discovery of a bridge. Besides, in the northern sector, along the inner bank of the river loop, a large structure has recently been unearthed that, by analogy with others already identified along the same line. could either be part of an embankment, or of the hitherto undiscovered Roman town walls. Therefore it was probably not by chance that the 12th.-13th. century walls of Medieval Padua are very close to the more ancient ones, that must have encircled the insula delimited by the river waters and the bridges crossing them. Analysis of data from the recently completed alphanumeric archaeological map of Padua favours the hypothesis that urban development was mainly residential within the eastern counter loop of the Meduacus, in a kind of projection towards Altino rather than Vicenza. Thus the river axis was aptly named flumen oppidi medium by Livy, since together with part of the town section of the Via Annia, the section between the river loop and counter loop, in particolar, was both an imponant intermediary factor between two densely settled areas (to the east and west) and also one of vertical urban aggregation (from north to south) of a more public nature (harbour Area, forum etc.), delimited on either side by the theatre to the south and the amphitheatre to the north.

G. UGGERI. Atlante Fondiario Romano (AFR).

Presentation of a CNR (ltalian National Research Council) research project for the compilation of the AFR Atlas, the aim of which is to document the topography of the ruraI Roman world by means of 25000 and 1000000 scale mapping. The following aspects will be highlighted: geomorphological variations, centuriation, road routes. and, above all, ruraI settlements. An initial contribution by R. Chellini is published here. It covers only one square (F°,. 113 IV) and thus presents specific detailed analysis. Interested scholars are invited to cooperate on ibis project.  R. CHELLINI, Roman Rural Settlements in the Area between Florence and Siena (F. 113 IV). The author aims to provide a complete picture Of evidence of Roman settlement over the large rural area between the cities of Florence, Volterra and Siena (F° 113, Castelfiorentino). On the basis of personal observation and data collected from local informants, he has not only updated R. Bianchi Bandinelli's old archaeological map by adding new archaeological evidence, but also studied placenames dating back to the relevant period. Examination of archives confirmed the ancient origin of praedial place-names and restored some that had disappeared from memory and maps (e.g. Timignano. Fundagnano. Mantignano). On tbis basis, the occasionai family name of an ancient landowner could also be traced (e.g. Fiano from Alfianus), and the early corruption of place-names. whose original meaning was no longer understood, and whose antiquity thus confirmed (e.g. Petroio), could be demonstrated. Linguistic survivals predominate over material ones in the area under study. If the surrounding hills are seen as natural limits of landed property, and if the factor of there being more than one structure within the same property is also ignored, placename density appears to be near saturation point, at least in the case of table IV SE. This means that, at least from the late Roman Empire, the area did not radically alter its settlement pattern. Indirect confirmation of this may also come from the limited amount of archaeological evidence. Since it would have been eliminated by continuous land use. This research has foregrounded the methodological importance of selective use of linguistic survivals in a specific area.  These do not only add to archaeological and topograpbical data,  but also, on occasion, have semantic relevance, which can be a source of information on the use of particular structures and the characteristics of the site. This investigation can also provide the basis for studying later settlement beyond thee Roman period. The author also uses historical, literary and other sources to reconstruct the process of Romanization, briefly touching on the involvement of the Etruscan cities of Volterra and Fiesole. The author's view is that the Romanization of this area or Northern Etruria only began with Sulla, whose role appears to bave been rather negative, if we can trust the lack of archaeological evidence and Cicero's references to ·thee inhabitants of Volterra. The decisive event was the foundation of the Roman colony of Florentia, whose date is still controversial. Intensive land use, unknown in the Etruscan period, began at this rime, most probably reaching its climax well into the second half of the 1st. century A.D.

M. VITTI. The Palace of Galerius in Thessalonica.

The palace of the Emperor Galerius is part of a large development in the eastern part of the town on a site that up to 254-268 A.D. had been occupied first by Hellenistic and then Roman cemeteries. Starting from the sea front, the units that make up the palace consist of a large peristyle (fig. 3; 36) and an octagonal temple-throne room, preceded by a double apsed vestibule opening onto the peristyle (fig. 3; 1-11). To the north of the Octagon there is a smaller peristyle, onto which the imperial apartments open. The entire complex is surrounded by ambulatories separating it off from the rest of the palace buildings (fig. 3; 12-27). To the east of the smaller peristyle and Octagon there are a number of rooms, two of which stand out: an oblong shaped room with a nymphaeum at the east end and an apsed room, which is to be identified as the "Palatine Hall" (fig. 3; 30, 35). The latter, on its east side, borders with the hippodrome, whose exact 480x135 m format is now known, after identification of the foundations of the carceres along the Via Egnazia (figs. 1-2). To the north of the smaller peristyle and to the west of the hippodrome there are the large building in Gounari odos, which was probably a temple, and the foundations of what was likely to have been the imperial dynastic mausoleum (figs. 1-2). To the north, preceded by a rectangular vestibule, stands the Arch of Galerius, at the beginning of a colonnaded street connecting it to the temenos of the Round Temple. The Arch was an integral part of the town plan and also had an .ideological function.  Concerning the first point, the four-sided monumene facilitated communication between the Round Temple and the Via Egnatia, and hid the branching off of me Via Regia near the walls allowing the latter to run alongside the carceres. Besides. the Arch highlighted the link between tbe Palace and Round Tempie, along an axis connecting the Arch itself, the vestibule, the building in Gounari odos and the "Palatine Hall". The Arch's ideological function was also significant as an iconographic celebration of me 10th. anniversary of Galerius' accession and his victory over the Persians in 298 A.D. The choice and type of buildings in this complex was clearly deliberate. They can be compared with those in similar residences of the tetrarchs such as: the palace, hippodrome, mausoleum, Palatine Hall and baths. All or part of them are also to be found in the tetrarchal palaces of Milan, Antioch, Trier, Sirmium and Rome, though arranged differently, according to local circumstances (figs. 13·14). Galerius' architects had the undoubted merit of ably reconciling the Emperor's architectural requirements with an already existing town plan. Starting in 305 A.D., they created a splendidly harmonious complex which was to be ready for the celebrations of me twentieth anniversary of Galerius' accession in 312 A.D.

M. A. AMUCANO, The Contribution of Dionigi Panedda to the Ancient Topography of Northeastern Sardinia.

The aim of this brief note is to highlight the imponant work of Dionigi Panedda on northeastern Sardinia. Panedda studied in Rome under Giuseppe Lugli, to whom he owed his well founded methodology and rigorous critical approach. His research, which began after the Second World War, was almost entirely devoted to the Gallura area in northeastern Sardinia. This distinguished scholar, who died some years ago, occupied a rather solitary position, though not by choice, and is best known for his two volumes of Forma Italiae, one dealing with Olbia, and the other with its large surrounding area. These two volumes are stili the only ones in tbe collection deaing with a Sardinian town. His other two major works concern: firstly, the topography (boundaries, population nuclei. communications etc.) of Gallura, the smallest of the four kingdoms of mediaeval Sardinia; secondly. a complete criticai survey of the place-names of the Olbia area, published in 1991 after his death. Both these very imponant works are the end product of decades of historical, topographical and linguistic research by Panedda on his home region. He began his work, unaided, based on far-reaching historical analysis of one of the most neglected parts of Sardinia.. As a result of his efforts, this area is now one of the best known from me standpoint of the island's historical topography and toponymy.

F. M. CIFARELLI. lnitial Data for the History of the 6th. Century B.C Roman Colony at Segni.

On the naturally defended plateau of the acropolis at Segni (Signia, Latium) sporadic archaeological evidence dates from tbe Late Bronze Age. Early 5th. century B.C. temple terracotta finds had been attributed to the period of the second Roman colony founded in 495 B.e. The author presents here an Attic lip cup fragment, an archaic female antefix and an archaic bronze, all of which can be dated to the last quarter of the 6th. century B.C. Thus evidence is now available for the existence of the first Roman colony, traditionally associated with Tarquin tbe Proud.

A.CHERICI,  An Ancient Mine at Arezzo.

In 1875, at Villucola, situated above Staggiano to the east of Arezzo (Arretium, Etruria), a series of shafts were discovered and subsequently studied by Angelo Pasqui ("Not. Scavi" 1877, p. 305 f.). The author has traced the plans and sections of two further shafts. On the basis of comparisons with mostly Spanish mines of the Roman period, they are presented as probable evidence of iron ore mining. This evidence confirms the tradition that Arretium played a leading role in the metallurgical industry in the Republican period.

C. CORSI, New Data on Roman Roads in an Etruscan Coastal Area: A Milestone from the Territory of Tarquinia.

During topographical research for the archaeological map of the coastal areas of the territories of Tarquinia and Vulci, a presumably Roman limestone milestone, bearing nothing other than the number XXI, came to light at the 102nd. km. of the Aurelia state highway (strada statale 1). Although it is not certain that the milestone is actually in situ, it is likely that it belongs to the immediate surroundings, and can thus be of help in reconstructing the Roman road system. This area was crossed by the Aurelia Vetus and Nova roads. Though the milestone may have come from the nearby straight road, on the basis of a new look at some data from Westphal and confirmation from tbe distribution of Republican period rural settlements, the author suggests that there was an alternative route between Centumcellae - where miles began to be counted - and Forum Aureli (to be situated near Montalto di Castro), following the modern road.

M. BERGAMINI. A Manufacturing Settlement on the Tiber in the Territory of Tuder.

This article documents the discovery of a settlement for thee production of terra sigillata in Umbria, on the left bank of the Tiber, in the area under the jurisdiction of the Roman colony of Iulia Tuder. between Todi and Orvieto. The discovery was preceded by an archaelogical Survey, which unearthed a large number of terra sigillata fragments, many bearing the stamp of the two potters working there: L(ucius) Plo(tius) Zos(imus) (CVArr 1342) and L(ucius) Plot(ius) Por(cius) (CVArr 1340-1341). This preliminary study is based on the fragments found on the surface, but regular excavation is planned for tbe Spring of 1995 by the Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche dell'Antichità at Perugia University.

A. SETTEMBRINI. The Roman Aqueduct at Amendolara in Calabria.

The author describes the Roman aqueduct at Amendolara. It consists of three water collection Wells, five piezometric tanks, a reservoir and a concrete conduit, and two different types of terracotta pipes. Following a course of approximately 3 km., the supply system manages to overcome ground level variations in a landscape characterized by a series of small plateaux. Flow rate, which can only be estimated for some sections was c. 70 litres per sec along the first section and c. 40 litres per sec. at the point where the cylindrical pipes branch off.

A. MESSINA. The Baths of Daphne and Baiae in Syracuse.

The author suggests that the remains of Roman baths under Syracuse Public Hospital could be the Baths of Daphne and Baiae mentioned in ancient written sources. Likewise, the "Landolina" Venus. which was discovered in the same area could be the Venus of Baiae, worshipped in Syracuse according to Esychius. .

H. LEYLEK. The Illustration of Antioch and the Dating of the Tabula Peutingeriana.

By analysis of the allegorical ilIustration of Antioch in the Tabula Peutingeriana, the author identifies links with a number of topographical details associated with the River Orontes: the Palace island. Castalia fountain and aqueduct of Daphne. Besides, the highlighting of the Temple of Apollo's Oracle as the representative emblem of the city suggests a date for tte Tabula in the region of the sixth decade of the 4th. century, since it must precede the terrible fire of 22 October 362, which totally destroyed the temple.

V. CASTELLANI. Evidence [or Hydrographica/ Planning in Ancient Cappadocia.

Evidence is presented for ancient water regulation in tbe valleys of central Cappadocia. In particolar, evidence is discussed from a selected area in the upper part of the Meskendir valley, where two systems of tunnels can be identified. One system collected the natural flow of meteoric water, diverting it into a large underground tunnel conveying the water down to the valley. The other system consists of numerous short tunnels opening at the foot of the cliff. The latter appears to have supplied water for farming. The origin and age of the systems are briefly discussed.